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Nakayama is between Narita And Haneda International Airport

中山・下総・散歩道

Muromachi Bakufu / Ashikaga Bakufu

Muromachi Bakufu (Shogunate) is also called Ashikaga Bakufu from 1336 or 1338 to 1573, it was a samurai government founded by Takauji Ashikaga as the military aristocratic government.
After the new government by the Imperial Court had started in Kenmu era called Kenmu no Shinsei, Takauji revolted against the government since the government had given no rewards to samurai worriers for their help to seize the governmental power. Most samurai worriers joined to Takauji and he helped the Emperor Kogon assume the throne and he was appointed to be the shogun, so he rebuilt the samurai government and the Northern Dynasty. The Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties had started. Takauji established Kenmu Shikimoku Laws in 1336.
The organization of Muromachi Bakufu was succeeded the Kamakura Bakufu's, Hyojoshu (the council of the Bakufu), Hikitsukegata (the court for gokenin sumurais) and Kanrei in Kyoto and it also established Kamakura Shogun Office, Kanto Kanrei (chief officers helping Kamakura Shogun), Kyushu and Oshu Tandai (the military general to control rural areas), and Mandokoro (political office), Monchusho (the office of inquiry) and Samuraidokoro (samurai offices) were put under the Kanreis. And it appointed the positions of provincial military governors.
While the regime under the third Shogun Yoshimitsu, he defeated the military governors such as Yamana and Ouchi, and he completed the unification of Japan, so he built the golden ages of Muromachi Bakufu. The Shoguns’ authority were also reached to the same level as the noble's. Anyway the name Muromachi was named after the place where Yoshimitsu had built his palace called Hanagosho (the floral palace) or Muromachidono (the mansion at Muromachi) at Muromachi in Kyoto.
However, the military governors grew and grew and the power of the Shogun declined. After the assacination of the sixth Shogun Yoshinori (the rebel in Kakitsu), many incidents such as internal conflicts among relatives and senior vassals had happened. Finally, the War of Onin happened. After that the power of Muromachi Bakufu (Shogunate) declined and the social order was disturbed and the period of social upheaval started so local warlords competed with one another, so the age of civil wars started; Sengoku Period (The Warring Satates Pariod) started.
When Nobunaga Oda from Owari Province appeared and gained the great power to control Japan, the 15th Shogun Yoshiaki was expelled by him, so Muromachi Shogunate was ended.

The Successive Shoguns: A List Of Muromachi Shoguns

  • 01 Takauji Ashikaga 1338-1358
  • 02 Yoshiakira Ashikaga 1358-1367
  • 03 Yoshimitsu Ashikaga 1368-1394
  • 04 Yoshimochi Ashikaga 1394-1423 and 1425-1428
  • 05 Yoshikazu Ashikaga 1423-1425
  • 06 Yoshinori Ashikaga 1429-1441
  • 07 Yoshikatsu Ashikaga 1442-1442
  • 08 Yoshimasa Ashikaga 1449-1473 and 1489-1490
  • 09 Yoshihisa Ashikaga 1473-1489
  • 10 Yoshiki / Yoshitane Ashikaga 1490-1493 and 1508-1521
  • 11 Yoshizumi Ashikaga 1494-1508
  • 12 Yoshiharu Ashikaga 1521-1546
  • 13 Yoshiteru Ashikaga 1546-1565
  • 14 Yoshihide / Yoshichika Ashikaga 1568-1568
  • 15 Yoshiaki Ashikaga 1568-1588

Ashikaga Family

Ashikaga Family was the Shogun Family in Muromachi Bakufu. The family is the noted family in Seiwa Genji Clan. Yoshiyasu, one of grandsons of Yoshiie Minamoto settled in Ashikaga-sho Shimotsuke province. During Kamakura Period, Ashikaga family sent daughters as spouses to Hojo family who gained the power of Kamakura Bakufu so it gained strength.
Takauji Ashikaga was appointed as the position of Shogun because of the rewards of Kenmu no Shisei and he founded the Muromachi Bakufu in 1338. After the War of Onin, the family and the Bakufu lost the power, Yoshiaki was expelled Nobunaga Oda in 1573 and the Bakufu ended.
The descendants of Motouji, a son of Takauji succeeded Kamakura Shogun, but Mochiuji Ashikaga conflicted to Muromachi Bakufu in Kyoto and defeated at the War of Eikyo in 1438. Nariuji, a son of Mochiuji, conflicted to Uesugi Family of Kanto Kanrei and was defeated. He moved to Koga in Shimousa, so he was called Koga Shogun. After Muromachi Bakufu had fallen, his descendants named Kitsuregawa, and they named Ashikaga again after Meiji Restoration in 1867.
Anyway Niki, Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, Shiba, Imagawa and Isshiki were members of Ashikaga clan.


参考
新制版 日本史辞典
デジタル大辞林
明鏡国語辞典
ブリタニカ国際大百科
クロニック戦国全史
日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ)
ニューワイド学習辞典 学研キッズネット
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