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Nakayama is between Narita And Haneda International Airport

中山・下総・散歩道

The Kamakura Bakufu / The Kamakura Shogunate

Kamakura Bakufu (Kamkura Shogunate) was the first samurai government founded by Yoritomo Minamoto in 1185 in Japan (some said in 1180, 1183, 1192 and so on), . The Bakufu established Mandokoro (the administrative office), Monchujo (the judicial office) and Samuraidocoro (the military office) in Kamakura to rule and control the samurai society and Japan,and established Rokuhara Tandai in Kyoto to check and protect the Imperial Palace and the nobles around, Chinzei Tandai to check and control the samurais in western Japan and established Oshu Sobugyo to check and control the samurais in northern part of Japan, and the Bukuf sent the military governors and estate steward to all provinces in each to rule throughout Japan. After the Minamoto Clan died out, the Regents from the Hojo Clan seized administrative power and they controled the shoguns from the nobles and the Imperial Family. The organization of the Bakufu was based on 'Goon and Hoko' (reward and service), so the samurai worriers served the Shogun, then Shogun gave them land and help. The Jokyu Rebellion occurred in 1221, the Emperor Gotoba raised troops to attack the Kamakura Bakufu, but he was defeated. As a result, the administrative power of Kamakura Bakufu increased, so the Bakufu could participate in the watch of the Imperial Court as well as in deciding the person who would inherit the title of Emperor, extending the control rights by advancing into the western part of Japan. Then the role of Rokuhara Tandai was changed, so it was originally in charge of communication and adjustment with Imperial Court, but after the Rebellion, it came to watch out Imperial Court and control samurai worriers in the west. In 1232, the third regent Yasutoki Hojo adopted the Goseibai-shikimoku (the code of conduct for samurai) to strengthen the power to control over the samurai worriers. Moreover, the "Goseibai-shikimoku" was the first legal code in the history of Japan.

The Successive Shoguns: A List Of Kamakura Shoguns
1 Yoritomo Minamoto 1192-1199 (the Genji Clan)
2 Yoriie Minamoto 1202-1203 (the Genji Clan)
3 Iemitus Tokugawa 1203-1219 (the Genji Clan)
4 Yoritsune Fujiwara 1226-1244 (the Kujo Family of the Fujiwara Clan)
5 Yoritsugu Fujiwara 1244-1252 (the Kujo Family of the Fujiwara Clan)
6 The Prince Munetaka 1252-1266 (the Imperial Family)
7 The Prince Koreyasu 1266-1289 (the Imperial Family)
8 The Prince Hisaakira 1289-1308 (the Imperial Family)
9 The Prince Morikuni 1308-1333 (the Imperial Family)


The Successive Regent: A List Of The Head Of Hojo Family
1 Tokimasa Hojo 1203-1205 (the head family)
2 Yoshitoki Hojo 1205-1224 (the head family)
3 Yasutoki Hojo 1224-1242 (the head family)
4 Tsunetoki Hojo 1242-1246 (the head family)
5 Tokiyori Hojo 1246-1256 (the head family)
6 Nagatoki Hojo 1256-1264 (the Gokurakuji Family of the Hojo Clan)
7 Masamura Hojo 1264-1268 (the Masamura's Family of the Hojo Clan)
8 Tokimune Hojo 1268-1284 (the head family)
9 Sadatoki Hojo 1284-1301 (the head family)
10 Morotoki Hojo 1301-1311 (the Munemasa family of the Hojo Clan)
11 Munenobu Hojo 1311-1312 (the Osaragi family of the Hojo Clan)
12 Hirotoki Hojo 1312-1315 (the Masamura's Family of the Hojo Clan)
13 Mototoki Hojo 1315-1316 (the Gokurakuji Family of the Hojo Clan)
14 Takatoki Hojo 1316-1326 (the head family)
15 Sadaaki Hojo 1326 (the Kanazawa family of the Hojo Clan)
16 Moritoki Hojo 1326-1333 (the Akahashi family of the Hojo Clan)

Development the monetary economy caused the samurais' life in poverty, so some of them lost their land. In addition, the Mongolian Expeditions against Japan in 1274 and 1281 caused them in the state of poverty. Kamakura Bakufu issued Einin no Tokuseirei (a debt cancellation order) to help the sumurais 1297, it banned to put the land in pawn, and it forced the land in pawn giving back to the samurai worriers. However the order did not work efficiently to save the life of the samurai worriers, it only strengthen the absolute power under the Hojo Regency. Therefore the relationship between the Bakufu and Samrai, Goon and Hoko, gradually broke down, they had some complaints at the Bakufu. In 1324, Shochu Incident occurred. Emperor Godaigo planned to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu, but it was exposed and lost. And in 1331, the Emperor planned to overthorw it again, so it was called Genko Incident, and it failed again. This time, the Emperor Godaigo was exiled Oki Islands. After this incident, some armies raised to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu everywhere in Japan. In 1333, Takauji Ashikaga, the first Shogun of Muromachi Bakufu, attacked Rokuhara Tandai and occupied it. And Yoshisada Nitta overthrew the Kamakura and the Hojo Clan ruined. Then Kamakura Bakufu ended. The reign of Kamakura Bakufu is called Kamakura Period.



参考
デジタル大辞林
明鏡国語辞典
ブリタニカ国際大百科
クロニック戦国全史
日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ)
ニューワイド学習辞典 学研キッズネット
ウィッキペディア