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中山・下総・散歩道

Tokugawa Family / Matsudaira Family

Tokugawa Family / Matsudaira Family

Tokugawa Family was a sengoku daimyo and the Shogun Family of Edo Bakufu.
Tokugawa Family was a descendant of Yoshishige Nitta from Seiwa Genji Clan. His youngest son Yoshitoshi settled in Tokugawa-go, Serata no sho, Kamitsuke province (Ojima-cho, Gunma prefecture) then he named his family name Tokugawa. However, it was created by Ieyasu and his sons. Generally, Tokugawa Family was a powerful regional clan in Matudaira-go, Kamo-gun, Mikawa province, then it was originally named Matsudaira Family and Ieyasu, the first Shogun, changed the name 'Tokugawa'.
According to Tokugawa Bakufu, the first generation of Matsudaira Family from Seiwa Genji Clan was Chikauji. Since he was attacked by Ashikaga Family, he escaped from Tokugawa-go and became a priest belonging to Jishu Sect of Buddhism wandering about Japan. Chikauji was finally adopted by Matsudaira Family as a husband for a daughter and he strengthened his influence to neighbour villages. Then he was regarded as the founder of Matsudaira (Tokugawa) Family and the first generation of the lord.
The third generation Nobumitsu had 48 children, he extended his territory and he gave parts of his extended land to his children. Then his power in Mikawa province increased. Some said there remained a record that Nobumitsu had served Ise Family at Muromachi Bakufu in Kyoto.
The fifth generation Nagachika frequently conflicted to Imagawa Family having power to control Totomi and Suruga province, and he conquered most of western part of Mikawa, then he moved his base to Anjo (Anjo-shi in Aichi prefecture).
The seventh generation Kiyoyasu moved the base to Okazakijo Castle (Okazaki-shi) in 1524 and he built the golden age. Nevertheless, he was killed by his retainer in 1535 named Moriyama Kuzure.
Hirotada, the son of Kiyoyasu once had lost the castle, but he regained it with helps of Imagawa Family. He conflicted to Hidenobu Oda, one of the most influential samurai worriers in Owari and the father of Nobunaga. 1549, Hirotada was killed by his retainer and Mikawa province was under controlled by Imagawa Family.
After the Battle at Okehazama in 1560, Ieyasu regained the power to control Mikawa province and concluded peace with Oda Family in Owari province. And Ieyasu changed his family name to Tokugawa in 1566 to maintain his authority to govern his territory. In addition, he was also appointed the position of the governor of Mikawa province by the Imperial Court at Kyoto. In 1600, he won the Battle of Sekigahara and he gained the power to manage the government, so he planned the postwar processing and decided the postwar grants of honors. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed the shogun, then he founded the Bakufu in Edo and he became the first Shogun, Edo Period started.
From 1603 to 1867, Tokugawa Family succeeded the position of Shogun for 265 years.


The Successive Shoguns: A List Of Tokugawa Shoguns

  • 1 Ieyasu Tokugawa 1603-05
  • 2 Hidetada Tokugawa 1605-1623
  • 3 Iemitus Tokugawa 1623-1651
  • 4 Ietsuna Tokugawa 1651-1680
  • 5 Tsunayoshi Tokugawa 1680-1709
  • 6 Ienobu Tokugawa 1709-1712
  • 7 Ietsugu Tokugawa 1713-1716
  • 8 Yoshimune Tokugawa 1716-1745
  • 9 Ieshige Tokugawa 1745-1760
  • 10 Ieharu Tokugawa 1760-1786
  • 11 Ienari Tokugawa 1787-1837
  • 12 Ieyoshi Tokugawa 1837-1853
  • 13 Iesada Tokugawa 1853-1858
  • 14 Iemochi Tokugawa 1858-1866
  • 15 Yoshinobu Tokugawa 1867-1868

The List of Head of Matsudaira Family

  • 1 Chikauji Matsudaira ?-1393
  • 2 Yasuchika Matsudaira ?-?
  • 3 Nobumitsu Matsudaira ?-1488 or 1489
  • 4 Chikatada Matsudaira 1431-1501
  • 5 Nagachika Matsudaira 1473-1544
  • 6 Nobutada Matsudaira ?-1523
  • 7 Kiyoyasu Matsudaira 1511-1535
  • 8 Hirotada Matsudaira 1526-1549
  • 9 Ieyasu Tokugawa 1544-1616

Anyway only 4 sons of Ieyasu could take the name of Tokugawa, and others could take Matsudaira, so there were 18 Matsudaira Families of relatives of Shogun Family. And also samurai worriers would not take this family name in general, farmers, marchants, craft man and so forth were forbidden to have the family name. Then the family name Tokugawa had the strong authority of its own.


参考
クロニック戦国全史
デジタル大辞林
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典
百科事典マイペディア
日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ)
ウィッキペディア

Ieyasu Tokugawa / Motonobu or Motoyasu Matsudaira

Ieyasu Tokugawa / Motonobu or Motoyasu Matsudaira (1544-1616)

Ieyasu Tokugawa was the founder of Edo Bakufu (Shogunate) and he took the position of Shogun from 1603 to 1605. His father was Hirotada Matsudaira and his mother was Odai, a daughter of Tadamasa Mizunoso, his childhood name was Takechiyo, then he named Motonobu and Motoyasu Matsudaira, so he had took his family name Matsudaira by 1566. After his death, he named Ankokuin Tosho Daigongen.
When he was a child, his family lost the power to control the clan and Mikawa province, so he was taken as a hostage by first Oda in Owari and next Imagawa in Suruga. After the Battle at Okehazama in 1560, Oda won the battle and Imagawa lost it and the head of the family. Then Ieyasu regained the power to control Mikawa province was allied with Nobunaga Oda in Owari and he conquered Totomi and Suruga province. After the death of Nobunaga, he concluded with Hideyoshi Toyotomi, the Kanpaku Dajo-daijin (the supreme minister and chancellor) having the power to rule the samurai society at that time and he gained his territory in Kanto region. He built Edojo Castle and the city of Edo. He became the five largest powerful lords would manage the governmental administration together by Hideyoshi's will. After the death of Hideyosh in August 1598, ,there were some conflicts between the military faction and administrative faction broken out. Ieyasu supported the members of the military faction to control them to gain the power in the samurai society. Finally, Ieyasu won the Battle of Sekigahara. After Sekigahara, he gained the power to manage the government, so he planned the postwar processing and decided the postwar grants of honors. In 1603, he was appointed the shogun, then he founded the Bakufu in Edo and he became the first Shogun, then the Edo Period started. Ieyasu resigned the position in favor of his son Hidetada. In 1615, Ieyasu won the Seige of Osaka and overthrew Toyotomi Family completely. He enacted Laws Governing Military Households. He built the foundation of Edo Bakufu.
Ieyasu was passed away in 1616. He was buried in Kunosan in Sizuoka prefecture, later it moved to Nikkosan Rinnoji Temple in Tochigi prefecture.
By the way, Ieyasu Tokugawa remained his contributions in Ichikawa city, he built Gongenmichi road from Edo to Togane (in the central part of Chiba prifecture) to go hawking. Ieyas also supported the salt industry and Tokuganji Temple in Gyotoku in Ichikawa-shi.


参考
市川市ホームページ
デジタル大辞林
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典
クロニック戦国全史
ウィッキペディア

Mitsukuni Tokugawa or Mito / Mitokomon

Mitsukuni Tokugawa or Mito / Mitokomon (1628-1700)

Mitsukuni Tokugawa was the second generation of the lord of Mito domain in Hitachi province (Ibaraki prefecture) in early Edo period. He was son of Yorifusa, so he was a grandson of Ieyasu. His pseudonym was Bairi.
In 1661 Mitsukuni succeeded the position of the lord. He tried to keep stabilization of the people's livelihood so he promoted the reformations of the laws of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines and the agricultural policy. Moreover he loved study so he invited a Confucian scholar in Ming exile Shunsui Shu as his teacher. He founded Shokokan School and started compiling a history text Dai Nihonshi. It was the beginning of Mitogaku, an academic tradition arose in Mito. And he walked around his territory and tried to preserve cultural assets.
Mitsukuni was appointed as a chunagon, chunagon was called komon in China, then he was called Mitokomon in some stories.
Mitsukuni came to Ichikawa city several times. He visited Mamasan Guhoji Temple and he named Henrantei the tea house in it. And there remains a legend that Mitokomon had missed his way and wandered deep into the bamboo jungle called Yawata no Yabu Shirazu.


参考
真間山弘法寺ホームページ
改訂新版「市川のむかし話」
デジタル大辞林
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典
美術人名辞典
デジタル版 日本人名大辞典
世界大百科事典
ウィッキペディアより

Yoshimune Tokugawa

Yoshimune Tokugawa (1684-1751)

Yoshimune Tokugawa was the 8th Shogun of Edo Bakufu from 1716-1749, and he was the 4th son of Mitsusada Tokugawa, the lord of Kii Province. He had been called Genroku and Shinnosuke in his childhood.
His elder brothers unfortunately died in their young ages, so he could succeeded his father's position, so he became the lord of Kii. After that, he could be the 8th Shogun.
During his reign, Yoshimune rejected the principles of civilian government by Hakuseki Arai, then he advocated return to the Ages of Ieyasu Tokugawa, and he encouraged military arts, practical science (medicine and astromy), promotion of industriy and reclaiming rice fields, so his policy is called 'Kyoho no Kaikaku (Reform in Kyoho era) with Tadasuke Ooka and Konyo Aoki.
Yoshimune was the restorer of Edo Bakufu.
Moreover, Yoshimuna and his retainer Tadasuke Ooka are most famous and popular heroes in Japanese history, and many kabuki plays, novels, dramas, movies and so on describing them has been produced for several .
Yoshimune often went hawking and he visited Mamasan Guhoji Temple and some other temples in Edogawaku.


参考
大辞林
新制版 日本史辞典
日本世界人名辞典
新編 市川歴史探訪 崙書房