Tokugawa Family / Matsudaira Family
Tokugawa Family was a sengoku daimy
o and the Shogun Family of Edo Bakufu
Tokugawa Family was a descendant of Yoshishige Nitta from Seiwa Genji Clan
. His youngest son Yoshitoshi settled in Tokugawa-go, Serata no sho, Kamitsuke
province (Ojima-cho, Gunma prefecture) then he named his family name Tokugawa.
However, it was created by Ieyasu and his sons. Generally, Tokugawa Family
was a powerful regional clan in Matudaira-go, Kamo-gun, Mikawa province,
then it was originally named Matsudaira Family and Ieyasu
, the first Shogun, changed the name 'Tokugawa'.
According to Tokugawa Bakufu, the first generation of Matsudaira Family
from Seiwa Genji Clan was Chikauji. Since he was attacked by Ashikaga Family
, he escaped from Tokugawa-go and became a priest belonging to Jishu Sect
of Buddhism wandering about Japan. Chikauji was finally adopted by Matsudaira
Family as a husband for a daughter and he strengthened his influence to
neighbour villages. Then he was regarded as the founder of Matsudaira (Tokugawa)
Family and the first generation of the lord.
The third generation Nobumitsu had 48 children, he extended his territory
and he gave parts of his extended land to his children. Then his power
in Mikawa province increased. Some said there remained a record that Nobumitsu
had served Ise Family at Muromachi Bakufu
The fifth generation Nagachika frequently conflicted to Imagawa Family
having power to control Totomi
and Suruga province
, and he conquered most of western part of Mikawa, then he moved his base
to Anjo (Anjo-shi in Aichi prefecture).
The seventh generation Kiyoyasu moved the base to Okazakijo Castle (Okazaki-shi) in 1524 and he built the golden age. Nevertheless, he was killed by his retainer in 1535 named Moriyama Kuzure.
Hirotada, the son of Kiyoyasu once had lost the castle, but he regained it with helps of Imagawa Family. He conflicted to Hidenobu Oda, one of the most influential samurai worriers in Owari and the father of Nobunaga. 1549, Hirotada was killed by his retainer and Mikawa province was under controlled by Imagawa Family.
After the Battle at Okehazama in 1560, Ieyasu regained the power to control
Mikawa province and concluded peace with Oda Family
in Owari province. And Ieyasu changed his family name to Tokugawa in 1566
to maintain his authority to govern his territory. In addition, he was
also appointed the position of the governor of Mikawa province by the Imperial
Court at Kyoto. In 1600, he won the Battle of Sekigahara and he gained
the power to manage the government, so he planned the postwar processing
and decided the postwar grants of honors. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed
the shogun, then he founded the Bakufu in Edo
and he became the first Shogun, Edo Period
From 1603 to 1867, Tokugawa Family succeeded the position of Shogun for 265 years.
The Successive Shoguns: A List Of Tokugawa Shoguns
- 1 Ieyasu Tokugawa 1603-05
- 2 Hidetada Tokugawa 1605-1623
- 3 Iemitus Tokugawa 1623-1651
- 4 Ietsuna Tokugawa 1651-1680
- 5 Tsunayoshi Tokugawa 1680-1709
- 6 Ienobu Tokugawa 1709-1712
- 7 Ietsugu Tokugawa 1713-1716
- 8 Yoshimune Tokugawa 1716-1745
- 9 Ieshige Tokugawa 1745-1760
- 10 Ieharu Tokugawa 1760-1786
- 11 Ienari Tokugawa 1787-1837
- 12 Ieyoshi Tokugawa 1837-1853
- 13 Iesada Tokugawa 1853-1858
- 14 Iemochi Tokugawa 1858-1866
- 15 Yoshinobu Tokugawa 1867-1868
The List of Head of Matsudaira Family
- 1 Chikauji Matsudaira ?-1393
- 2 Yasuchika Matsudaira ?-?
- 3 Nobumitsu Matsudaira ?-1488 or 1489
- 4 Chikatada Matsudaira 1431-1501
- 5 Nagachika Matsudaira 1473-1544
- 6 Nobutada Matsudaira ?-1523
- 7 Kiyoyasu Matsudaira 1511-1535
- 8 Hirotada Matsudaira 1526-1549
- 9 Ieyasu Tokugawa 1544-1616
Anyway only 4 sons of Ieyasu could take the name of Tokugawa, and others
could take Matsudaira, so there were 18 Matsudaira Families of relatives
of Shogun Family. And also samurai worriers would not take this family
name in general, farmers, marchants, craft man and so forth were forbidden
to have the family name. Then the family name Tokugawa had the strong authority
of its own.
Ieyasu Tokugawa / Motonobu or Motoyasu Matsudaira (1544-1616)
Ieyasu Tokugawa was the founder of Edo Bakufu (Shogunate)
and he took the position of Shogun from 1603 to 1605. His father was Hirotada
Matsudaira and his mother was Odai, a daughter of Tadamasa Mizunoso, his
childhood name was Takechiyo, then he named Motonobu and Motoyasu Matsudaira,
so he had took his family name Matsudaira by 1566. After his death, he
named Ankokuin Tosho Daigongen.
When he was a child, his family lost the power to control the clan and
Mikawa province, so he was taken as a hostage by first Oda in Owari
and next Imagawa in Suruga. After the Battle at Okehazama in 1560, Oda
won the battle and Imagawa lost it and the head of the family. Then Ieyasu
regained the power to control Mikawa province was allied with Nobunaga Oda
in Owari and he conquered Totomi and Suruga province. After the death
of Nobunaga, he concluded with Hideyoshi Toyotomi
, the Kanpaku Dajo-daijin
(the supreme minister and chancellor) having the power to rule the samurai
society at that time and he gained his territory in Kanto region. He built
and the city of Edo
. He became the five largest powerful lords would manage the governmental
administration together by Hideyoshi's will. After the death of Hideyosh
in August 1598, ,there were some conflicts between the military faction
and administrative faction broken out. Ieyasu supported the members of
the military faction to control them to gain the power in the samurai society.
Finally, Ieyasu won the Battle of Sekigahara. After Sekigahara, he gained
the power to manage the government, so he planned the postwar processing
and decided the postwar grants of honors. In 1603, he was appointed the
shogun, then he founded the Bakufu in Edo and he became the first Shogun,
then the Edo Period
started. Ieyasu resigned the position in favor of his son Hidetada. In
1615, Ieyasu won the Seige of Osaka and overthrew Toyotomi Family completely.
He enacted Laws Governing Military Households. He built the foundation
of Edo Bakufu.
Ieyasu was passed away in 1616. He was buried in Kunosan in Sizuoka prefecture, later it moved to Nikkosan Rinnoji Temple in Tochigi prefecture.
By the way, Ieyasu Tokugawa remained his contributions in Ichikawa city
, he built Gongenmichi road from Edo
to Togane (in the central part of Chiba prifecture
) to go hawking. Ieyas also supported the salt industry and Tokuganji Temple
in Gyotoku in Ichikawa-shi.
Mitsukuni Tokugawa or Mito / Mitokomon (1628-1700)
Mitsukuni Tokugawa was the second generation of the lord of Mito domain
in Hitachi province (Ibaraki prefecture) in early Edo period
. He was son of Yorifusa, so he was a grandson of Ieyasu. His pseudonym
In 1661 Mitsukuni succeeded the position of the lord. He tried to keep stabilization of the people's livelihood so he promoted the reformations of the laws of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines and the agricultural policy. Moreover he loved study so he invited a Confucian scholar in Ming exile Shunsui Shu as his teacher. He founded Shokokan School and started compiling a history text Dai Nihonshi. It was the beginning of Mitogaku, an academic tradition arose in Mito. And he walked around his territory and tried to preserve cultural assets.
Mitsukuni was appointed as a chunagon, chunagon was called komon in China, then he was called Mitokomon in some stories.
Mitsukuni came to Ichikawa city
several times. He visited Mamasan Guhoji Temple
and he named Henrantei the tea house in it. And there remains a legend
that Mitokomon had missed his way and wandered deep into the bamboo jungle
called Yawata no Yabu Shirazu.
Yoshimune Tokugawa (1684-1751)
Yoshimune Tokugawa was the 8th Shogun of Edo Bakufu
from 1716-1749, and he was the 4th son of Mitsusada Tokugawa, the lord
of Kii Province
. He had been called Genroku and Shinnosuke in his childhood.
His elder brothers unfortunately died in their young ages, so he could
succeeded his father's position, so he became the lord of Kii. After that,
he could be the 8th Shogun.
During his reign, Yoshimune rejected the principles of civilian government by Hakuseki Arai, then he advocated return to the Ages of Ieyasu Tokugawa, and he encouraged military arts, practical science (medicine and astromy), promotion of industriy and reclaiming rice fields, so his policy is called 'Kyoho no Kaikaku (Reform in Kyoho era) with Tadasuke Ooka and Konyo Aoki.
Yoshimune was the restorer of Edo Bakufu.
Moreover, Yoshimuna and his retainer Tadasuke Ooka are most famous and
popular heroes in Japanese history, and many kabuki plays, novels, dramas,
movies and so on describing them has been produced for several .
Yoshimune often went hawking and he visited Mamasan Guhoji Temple
and some other temples in Edogawaku
新編 市川歴史探訪 崙書房